31.1.10

Reading Time

SUMMARY


CHAPTER 4: MANAGING READING TIME
Comprehension should be your main reading goal, not how fast you read.

• Develop a general study schedule that shows specifically when you plan to study for each class and for how long.

• Choose the times you study based on when you are most alert, and determine the length of time of each study session using your reading averages for the subjects you are taking.

• Track your reading rates so you can create daily reading plans that set realistic goals for your classes each week.

The following reading tips are presented in this chapter and will contribute to your becoming a more efficient reader:

• reading quickly, when it is appropriate

• skimming

• regressing or rereading

• subvocalizing

• pacing

For Lexophiles Only

FOR YOU LEXOPHILES: (LOVERS OF WORDS)


1. A bicycle can't stand alone because it is two-tired.

2. What's the definition of a will? (It's a dead giveaway)

3. Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana.

4. A backward poet writes inverse.

5. In democracy it's your vote that counts. In feudalism it's your count that votes.

6. She had a boyfriend with a wooden leg, but broke it off.

7. A chicken crossing the road is poultry in motion.

8. If you don't pay your exorcist you get repossessed.

9. With her marriage she got a new name and a dress.

10. Show me a piano falling down a mineshaft and I'll show you A-flat minor.

11. When a clock is hungry it goes back four seconds.

12. The man who fell into an upholstery machine is fully recovered.

13. A grenade thrown into a kitchen in France would result in Linoleum Blown apart.

14. You feel stuck with your debt if you can't budge it.

15. Local Area Network in Australia: the LAN downunder.

16. He often broke into song because he couldn't find the key.

17. Every calendar's days are numbered.

18. A lot of money is tainted. 'Taint yours and 'taint mine.

19. A boiled egg in the morning is hard to beat.

20. He had a photographic memory which was never developed.

21. A plateau is a high form of flattery.

22. The short fortune-teller who escaped from prison was a small medium at large.

23. Those who get too big for their britches will be exposed in the end.

24. When you've seen one shopping center you've seen a mall.

25. Those who jump off a Paris bridge are in Seine.

26. When an actress saw her first strands of gray hair she thought she'd dye.

27. Bakers trade bread recipes on a knead to know basis.

28. Santa's helpers are subordinate clauses.

29. Acupuncture is a jab well done.

30. Marathon runners with bad footwear suffer the agony of defeat

Vocabulary Skills

SUMMARY


CRCB:  Chapter 2: DEVELOPING College VOCABULARY


Vocabulary skills are among the most important comprehension strategies you can learn.  By increasing your vocabulary, you increase your understanding of textbook information. A rich vocabulary:

·         allows you access to many types of reading material.
·         enhances your academic abilities.
·         increases your chances of getting the job of your choice.
Although no one knows the meaning of every word, or interrupts his or her reading to look up every unfamiliar word in a dictionary, using the simple strategies presented in this chapter will help you figure out and remember the meaning of new words. These strategies include:

·         using context clues
·         using word analysis
·         writing in your textbook
·         creating word maps
·         understanding denotation and connotation
·         using the Card Review System (CRS)
·         using new vocabulary daily when you talk and write

 



New Words for the New Millenium

BLAMESTORMING: Sitting around in a group, discussing why a
deadline was missed or a project failed, and who was
responsible.

CHAINSAW CONSULTANT: An outside expert brought in to reduce
the employee headcount, leaving the top brass with clean
hands.

CUBE FARM: An office filled with cubicles.

IDEA HAMSTERS: People who always seem to have their idea
generator running.

MOUSE POTATO: The on-line, wired generation's answer to the
couch potato.

PRAIRIE DOGGING: When someone yells or drops something loudly
in a cube farm, and people's heads pop up over the walls to
see what's going on.

SITCOMs: (Single Income, Two Children, Oppressive Mortgage)
What yuppies turn into when they have children and one of them
stops working to stay home with the kids.

STARTER MARRIAGE: A short-lived first marriage that ends in
divorce with no kids, no property and no regrets.

STRESS PUPPY: A person who seems to thrive on being stressed
out and whiny.

SWIPED OUT: An ATM or credit card that has been rendered
useless because the magnetic strip is worn away from extensive
use.

TOURISTS: People who take training classes just to get a
vacation from their jobs. "We had three serious students in
the class; the rest were just tourists."

TREEWARE: Hacker slang for documentation or other printed
material.

XEROX SUBSIDY: Euphemism for swiping free photocopies from
one's workplace.

ALPHA GEEK: The most knowledgeable, technically proficient
person in an office or work group.

CHIPS & SALSA: Chips = hardware, Salsa = software. "Well,
first we gotta figure out if the problem's in your chips or
your salsa.

Critical Thinking Links from Text

Text Online site:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072473762/information_center_view0/


Learning Style Inventories
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/ilsweb.html
Fill out this questionnaire, submit responses and receive feedback. This site can be
used to help confirm your learning style preference.
http://www.chelt.ac.uk/gdn/discuss/kolb1.htm
Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (for faculty)
http://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9511/article1.htm
McKeachie's article on learning styles (for faculty)
http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/LS-Prism.htm
Matters of Learning Styles (for Faculty)
http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/Secondtier.html
Learning Styles in Science
http://cyg.net/~jblackmo/diglib/styl-a.html
Learning Styles and Pedagogy (for faculty)
Concentration
http://www.loyola.edu/studycenter/studyskills.html
Provides general study skills information, including concentration and learning styles.
http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/humanities/english/memcon.htm
Provides quick information on memory and concentration strategies.
Good for review purposes.
http://www.k-state.edu/counseling/concentr.html
Offers explanation and practice of concentration strategies
including the spider technique.
http://adulted.about.com/library/weekly/aa091601a.htm
Study Time! How to Make the Most of It
http://www.ipfw.edu/casa/txtr.html
Pre-Reading Tips
Test Taking Strategies
www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/testskil.html
Test Taking Skills -- Essay Questions
http://www.glencoe.com/ps/peak/studyskills/pitfalls/pitfalls.html
Study and Test Taking Skills for Peak Performance
http://www.cs.gasou.edu/student/test10.html
The Ten Commandments for Taking a Test
http://www.bucks.edu/~specpop/tests.htm
The Basics of Effective Test Taking
Vocabulary Enhancement
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/vocabulary.htm
Building a Better Vocabulary
http://www.smsu.edu/studyskills/new/vocabulary.html
Tips for a Greater Vocabulary
Memory
http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/stdyhlp.html
Strategies for Improving Concentration and Memory
http://www.mtsu.edu/~studskl/mem.html
Memory Principles
http://www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/remread.html
Remembering What You Read
Mnemonics
http://www.wm.edu/OSA/dostud/moresski/memory.htm
Improving Your Memory Skills
Time Management Tips
http://www.bucks.edu/~specpop/time-manage.htm
Managing Your Reading Time
http://www.rio.maricopa.edu/distance_learning/tutorials/study/time.shtml
http://www.d.umn.edu/student/loon/acad/strat/time_manage.html
Time Management Tips
http://www.usu.edu/arc/idea_sheets/time.htm
Utah State Time Management System
http://www.csulb.edu/~tstevens/patsm96.htm
Self-Management
http://www.mheso.state.mn.us/mPg.cfm?pageID=688
Managing your Time
Speed Reading
http://www.brainquicken.com/px_project_article.asp
Brain Quicken - Speed Reading Technique
Will it work for you?
http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/suggest.html
Suggestions for Improving Reading Speed
http://www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/handouts/512.html
Brief Suggestions for Increasing Reading Speed
http://www.readingsoft.com/quiz.html
Speed Reading Quizzes
Main Ideas
http://gwired.gwu.edu/counsel/counsel.php?id=2140
Top Ten Tips for selecting Main Ideas
http://www.ccis.edu/departments/cae/studyskills/mainidea.html
Reading for the Main Ideas
http://users.dhp.com/~laflemm/reso/mainIdea.htm
Main Idea Exercises
http://vclass.mtsac.edu:920/readroom/Mainidea.htm
Main Idea Exercises
http://english.glendale.cc.ca.us/topic.html
Finding Main Ideas in Paragraphs
Finding Details
http://vclass.mtsac.edu/amla-51/Supporting%20Details/details.htm
Supporting Details
Textbook Reading Systems
http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/sq3r.html
SQ3R -- A Reading System
http://www.arc.sbc.edu/sq3r.html
Reading Methods
http://www.mindtools.com/sq3r.html
Mind Tools -- Increasing Your Retention of Written Information
Textbook Marking
http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/stdyhlp.html
Study Skills Self-Help -- Textbook Marking
http://www.psywww.com/mtsite/mindmaps.html
Improving Notetaking with Concept Maps (also good for Chapter 11)
http://www.hlnd.wnyric.org/diffinstruction/cornell%20note%20taking.htm
Cornell Notetaking Method
Using Visuals
http://www.mindtools.com/mindmaps.html
Mind Tools
http://www.brazosport.cc.tx.us/~lac/mindmap.htm
Mind Mapping
http://www.ourtimelines.com/
Create Your Own Family Time Line
http://www.lionden.com/using_outlines.htm
Using Outlines
Arguments
http://www.mccallie.org/wrt_ctr/What%20Should%20Students%20Know%20to%20Succeed%20in%20College.doc
%20to%20Succeed%20in%20College.doc
What Should Students Know to Succeed in College
http://www.intrepidsoftware.com/fallacy/
Logical Fallacies
http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/
Fallacies
http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/itl/graphics/main.html
Mission Critical -- a full-scale tutorial for critical thinking
Advanced Critical Reading
http://www.le.ac.uk/castle/resources/mcqman/mcqappc.html
Helpful review and practice of Bloom's Taxonomy.
http://www.litstudies.com/BloomTaxonomy.htm
More on Bloom's Taxonomy
Evaluating Websites
http://www.google.com/help/features.html
Tips on Mastering a Google Search
http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/college/help/critical/index.htm
Evaluating Sites
http://www.library.cornell.edu/okuref/research/skill26.htm
Critically Analyzing Information Sources







TFY Glossary

Glossary
Chapter 1
Accommodation Accommodation is achieved when we can do the thinking needed to create a new schema or modify an old schema in order to explain a new experience.
Assimilation Assimilation is achieved when we can integrate new experiences into existing schemas.
Disequilibrium The confusion and discomfort felt when a new experience cannot be integrated into existing schemas.
Equilibrium A stable inner feeling of well being that we feel when our thinking enables us to modify or create a new schema that better explains our world.
Hypothesis Hypothesis is a trial idea, tentative explanation, or theory that can be tested and used to further an investigation.
Observe To watch with attentive awareness.
Perceiving To regard and interpret what the senses tell us.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Schema Schemas are the mental files in which we store our explanations of experiences.
Sensing To make use of such senses as sight, hearing, and touch.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Glossary
Chapter 2
Critical reading Critical reading is analytical and evaluative reading based on accurate neutral comprehension of the material.
Definition A concise explanation of the meaning of a word that shows us its boundaries.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Term and class Term refers to the word defined and class refers to the largest family to which the term is related.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Word Word is a sound or group of sounds that communicate meaning. These sounds are also translatable into written symbols.
Word concept A concept is a abstract idea or principle conveyed in a word.
Word connotation Word connotation refers to the additional shades of meaning and emotional associations that a word may carry.
Glossary
Chapter 3
Absolute An absolute is something that is perfect, complete, always true, something never to be doubted or questioned.
Certain Certain is a characteristic of something fixed, assured, or inevitable.
Fact A fact is something proven to be true, real, existing or to have existed.
Fiction Fiction is an idea or story based on imagination rather than reality.
Objective/subjective Objective is to be impartial, free of bias or prejudice. Subjective is to be swayed by bias or prejudice rather than facts and evidence.
Plausibility This standard weighs the reasonability of a event or explanation.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Probability This standard estimates the likelihood that an event occurred or will occur.
Reliability This is another standard: that the data was confirmed to be fact by a reputable independent source. Reliability also means that the confirmation proved dependable over time.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Verifiability This is a standard for determining facts; that they can be tested and confirmed to be either true and/or in existence or past existence or not.
Verify To verify is to test and confirm the truth, accuracy, or existence of something.






Glossary
Chapter 4
Description versus Interpretation Pure description provides factual details that convey an accurate objective depiction of a subject. Interpretation makes inferences and judgments about the subject.
Evidence Evidence is a sign or proof that something is true or that it has or had existence.
Generalization A generalization is a statement derived from the study of a number of cases that summarizes something characteristic about these cases.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Justify To justify a claim means to defend and support a claim.
Obvious The obvious is something that is unconcealed and easy to see. Yet we may neglect to pay close attention to the obvious because it is so familiar.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.






Glossary
Chapter 5
Accommodation Accommodation is achieved when we can do the thinking needed to create a new schema or modify an old schema in order to explain a new experience.
Assimilation Assimilation is achieved when we can integrate new experiences into existing schemas.
Assumption Assumption is an idea whose truth can be taken for granted.
Assumption Layers Assumption layers can appear beneath simple assertions. Such layers consist of multiple hidden and unexamined assumptions influenced in turn by one or more value assumptions beneath the whole.
Counter claim Counter claim is a response to a claim with a defense or with another claim.
Disequilibrium The confusion and discomfort felt when a new experience cannot be integrated into existing schemas.
Equilibrium A stable inner feeling of well being that we feel when our thinking enables us to modify or create a new schema that better explains our world.
Hidden Assumption A hidden assumption is an unclear and unstated idea assumed to be true that is integral to a line of reasoning. In an argument, it is a hidden premise that cannot be examined for truth and validity. Blind acceptance of a hidden premise can lead to the acceptance of a false or invalid conclusion.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Lateral thinking Lateral thinking solves problems by reviewing options, overcoming assumptions, and inventing new solutions. Vertical thinking follows more conventional step-by-step logic.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Schema Schemas are the mental files in which we store our explanations of experiences.
Thesis A thesis is a short summary statement of an idea that an essay intends to prove. It is also called the thesis statement and controlling idea.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Value or Belief Assumption Value assumption is a belief that we take for granted, one that rarely questioned or even articulated. Remaining hidden and unexpressed, a value assumption can nevertheless shape a chain of reasoning.
Working Assumption A working assumption is a trial idea, theory, strategy, or hypothesis assumed to be true in order to further an investigation. It is a conscious assumption.






Glossary
Chapter 6
Advice Advice is to recommend an opinion to someone else.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Judgment Judgment is a final opinion, decision, conclusion or evaluation about something.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Personal taste or preference Personal taste or preferences are forms of opinions that express likes or dislikes. They can be irrational and need not be supported with reasons.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.






Glossary
Chapter 7
Evaluate To determine the value or worth of something.
Evaluations in word connotations Highly connotative words can be chosen to convey a person’s likes and dislikes under the guise of offering facts.
Expectations Mental constructs that anticipate the way things will be or should be.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Premature evaluation To judge something before one has finished examining it.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Propaganda Propaganda is the manipulation of public opinion for the benefit of the propagator.
Relativism Relativism is the belief that concepts such as right and wrong are not absolutes but depend on situations and the cultures.
Skilled Evaluations Skilled evaluations are opinions formed by experts after a careful and impartial study.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.






Glossary
Chapter 8
An unconscious viewpoint An unconscious viewpoint is a perspective unidentified by the viewer.
Egocentrism Egocentrism is the assumption that one’s perspective is the only perspective.
Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the assumption that one’s own social or cultural group is superior to all others.
Exterior To be exterior to one’s own viewpoint is to have a detached awareness of one’s viewpoint.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
News framing News framing describes the way relative importance can be implied about a news item by layout design, page placement, photos, and the wording of headlines.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Religiocentrism Religiocentrism is the assumption that one’s own religion is superior to all others.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Viewpoint A viewpoint is a personal or collective perspective consisting of memories, beliefs, and associations from which events are observed and evaluated.






Glossary
Chapter 9
Argument An argument offers reasons to support a conclusion with the intent to persuade.
Conclusion A clear statement of what an argument intends to prove or has proven.
Consistency Consistency refers to standards of logical coherence as well as constancy.
Contradiction A contradiction refers to a part or parts inconsistent with, or illogical to, other parts.
Debate question A debate question is a neutrally stated question designed to provide a focus for pro and con positions on an issue.
Discrepancy A discrepancy, like an incongruity, is something that diverges from an expected standard.
False Information False information refers to information that can be proven to be untrue.
Implied conclusion A conclusion understood but not explicitly stated.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Irreconcilable Irreconcilable are conflicting ideas, beliefs, or information that cannot coexist, such as contradictions.
Issue An issue is a matter of dispute.
Missing Information Missing information refers to essential information purposefully or inadvertently omitted from an argument or report.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Reason A statement offered to explain, justify, or support the conclusion.
Report A report offers objective accounts of events and objective information.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Topic A topic is a subject that is written or spoken about.






Glossary
Chapter 10
Appeal to Bandwagon This fallacy seeks to persuade by appealing to the wisdom of the momentum of a popular opinion.
Appeal to False Authority This fallacy seeks to persuade by citing fake, questionable, or inappropriate authority.
Appeal to Fear This fallacy seeks to persuade by arousing fear that clouds rationality.
Appeal to Pity This fallacy seeks to persuade by arousing pity.
Circular Reasoning This fallacy assumes what it is supposed to prove by reasserting the conclusion, sometimes in different words, as though this conclusion needed no supporting reasons.
Fallacy A fallacy is an invalid, argument that can be deceptive or misleading.
Fallacy of Word Ambiguity This fallacy seeks to gain an advantage in an argument by using vague undefined words that can be interpreted in more than one way.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Misleading Euphemisms This fallacy hides meaning by creating words that make a less acceptable idea seem positive or unrecognizable.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Personal Attack This fallacy attacks a person’s character without addressing the issue.
Pointing to Another Wrong This fallacy distracts attention from an admitted wrongdoing by claiming that similar actions went unnoticed and unpunished.
Poisoning the Well This fallacy seeks to prejudice others against a person, group or idea so that their arguments cannot be heard on their own merits.
Prejudicial Language This fallacy attempts to persuade through the use of loaded words that convey a bias.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Red Herring This fallacy distracts attention away from the lack of proof for a claim by raising irrelevant issues.
Straw man This fallacy misrepresents or caricatures an opponent’s position, then refutes the false replica created.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.






Glossary
Chapter 11
Analogical Reasoning Analogical reasoning draws conclusions on the basis of observed correspondences.
Cause A perceived source or consequence of an event.
Conclusion of an inductive study To make a generalization about empirical findings that may or may not confirm the hypothesis tested. It also may not be totally certain.
Either-or Fallacy This fallacy is an argument that oversimplifies a situation, asserting that there are only two choices when actually there are many.
Extrapolation This is an inference based on an estimated projection of known information.
False Analogy This fallacy compares two things that may have some similarities but also significant differences that are ignored for the sake of the argument.
Hasty Generalization This fallacy is a conclusion based on insufficient evidence.
Hypothesis Hypothesis is a trial idea, tentative explanation, or theory that can be tested and used to further an investigation.
Inconsistencies and Contradictions This fallacy makes claims that are contradictory or offers evidence that contradicts the conclusion.
Induction To reason about all members of a class on the basis of an examination of some members of a class.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Loaded Question This fallacy uses a biased question that seeks to obtain a predetermined answer.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Pattern A perceived design or form.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Questionable Statistic This fallacy backs up an argument with statistics that are either unknowable or unsound.
Reasoning through enumeration This is reasoning through counting. Reasoning draws conclusions or inferences from facts or premises.
Reasoning through Statistics and Probability This occurs in inductive reasoning. Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting numerical data. Probability in statistics estimates the ratio of the number of actual occurrences of a specific event to the total number of possible occurrences.
Reasoning with hypotheses To conceive a trial idea and use it to implement an investigation.
Slippery Slope This fallacy is an unwarranted claim that permitting one event to occur will lead to an inevitable and uncontrollable chain reaction.
The empirical or scientific method The empirical or scientific method is based on observation and experiment.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.






Glossary
Chapter 12
Deduction Deduction is to draw an inference about a specific instance from a general principle.
Hidden premise Hidden premise is a made claim in support of a conclusion that is implied but not stated. When not exposed, it can lead to the acceptance of a false conclusion.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Logic Logic is the science of good reasoning.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Syllogism A syllogism is the standardized form that makes the structure of a deductive argument visible. A syllogism consists of two premises or claims followed by a conclusion inferred from these premises.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.
Valid and sound A valid deductive argument is one in which the conclusion is correctly inferred from the premises. An argument is sound when the conclusion cannot be false because the premises are true and the reasoning is valid.






Creative thinking Creative thinking leads to the invention of something new. It makes use of imagination, challenges assumptions, and engages in problem solving.
Critical thinking Critical thinking brings conscious awareness, skills, and standards to the process of observing, analyzing, reasoning, evaluating, reading, and communicating.
Critical thinking standards Criteria used to attain, describe, and judge excellence in critical thinking.

26.1.10

Glossary -- Observation -- TFY-C1


Glossary

Chapter 1


AccommodationAccommodation is achieved when we can do the thinking needed to create a new schema or modify an old schema in order to explain a new experience.
AssimilationAssimilation is achieved when we can integrate new experiences into existing schemas.
DisequilibriumThe confusion and discomfort felt when a new experience cannot be integrated into existing schemas.
EquilibriumA stable inner feeling of well being that we feel when our thinking enables us to modify or create a new schema that better explains our world.
HypothesisHypothesis is a trial idea, tentative explanation, or theory that can be tested and used to further an investigation.
ObserveTo watch with attentive awareness.
PerceivingTo regard and interpret what the senses tell us.
Principal claim and reasonsThese are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
SchemaSchemas are the mental files in which we store our explanations of experiences.
SensingTo make use of such senses as sight, hearing, and touch.
ThinkingPurposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.

Observation: Five Senses

Observation:  Five Senses

 Observation -- Five SensesThis is a featured page

  1. Five Senses. What do you see? What objects, plants, or animals are in the place? What colors do you see? What do you hear? What would a hidden microphone record in the place you're describing? What does the air smell like? Is it annoying? pleasant? What does it remind you of? Where does the smell come from -- are there blooming flowers? cooking food? cans of oil? What do you taste? Are you touching anything? (Skip any questions that don't make sense for the place you're describing.)



  1. Different Angles. Consider the object you're describing from different angles. What does the object look like from the top? What if you were underneath the object? What would you see or notice if you were looking at the object from the right side? What does it look like from the left side? Make the object the Earth. You become the moon, and orbit the object. What do you notice as you travel around it?



  1. Focus on the Iceberg. Only one-eighth of an iceberg is above the surface of the water. The majority of the iceberg is underwater, yet most people think only about the part that appears above the surface. There are two options for you to consider: choose the one that fits your object best. (1) Look only at the top eighth or so of the object. If you saw only the upper eighth, if the rest were submerged, what would you think about the object? What would you see? What would you make of the part that you couldn't see? (2) Think about your object creatively. What you see, there on the surface, is the proverbial tip of the iceberg. What is hidden below the surface? What might you think of the object based only on the surface appearance, and what is the significance of the parts of the object that cannot be seen?



  1. Tiny Ants. When you're in a tall building looking down at the ground, the people and objects moving around can look like tiny ants. Take a bird's-eye view of your object. Put it in the world of tiny ants. From far above, what would you see? What would seem important? What features would be noticeable?

  2. Technicalities. Write an technical description of your object. Look at the object as you might to describe it for a legal document or in a scientific report. Focus on the known facts, rather than opinions or impressions that you have of the object. Focus on an objective view.


  1. Create a cartoon version. The cartoon world is a bit different from the real world. If your object were in a cartoon world, what parts would be exaggerated for comic effect? What parts would probably be omitted from the cartoon drawing? What cartoon would the object probably appear in? How does thinking of your object as a cartoon influence what you see?



  1. Different days. How does the object or place change from one day to the next? Is it different on weekends? Take me through a week in the life of the object. If you were to peek in on it every day, what would change? What would stay the same?



  1. Longshot. Pretend it's twenty years in the future. Take a look at your object or place. What do you notice? How would you describe it twenty years from now? What characteristics would remain the same? What would change? What would you see? hear? smell? How could you tell that time had passed by just by looking at the object or place?



  1. 15 Minutes of Fame. According to Andy Warhol, everyone has 15 minutes of fame. What would your object's or place's 15 minutes be? Describe your object in a way that highlights the features that place it in the limelight. Add details that help me understand how your object or place gained its 15 minutes.



  1. Opposites. You can learn a great deal about an object or place by defining the things that it is not. Describe the things that your object or place is not. What features and characteristics would never apply to it? How are these characteristics and features important? Why is their absence important?

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Texts / Instructional Materials

Instructional Materials and References

REQUIRED TEXTS:

Mayfield, M. (2007). Thinking for yourself. (8th Ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning: Wadsworth. ISBN: 978-1-4282-3144-3 (TFY)

Daiek, D., & Anter, N. (2004) Critical reading for college and beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 0072473762 (CRCB)

RECOMMENDED TEXT:

Harris, Robert. A. Creative Problem Solving. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2002. ISBN: 1-884585-43-4 (CPS)

COMPANION SITES

Thinking for Yourself Site

Critical Reading for College and Beyond Companion site:

Note: Course and student blogs and wiki sites to be presented in class

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-- 14 -- Characteristics of a Critical Thinker, Cognitive Domain




-- W 14 -- Characteristics of a Critical Thinker, Cognitive Domain

· Knowledge Level – factual data, main ideas, sequence of events, directions (Although it’s the most basic level, it’s just as important as all the other levels. It provides the who, what, where, and when information.)
· Comprehension Level – understanding, translating, paraphrasing, summarizing
· Application Level – problem solving, applying appropriate rules, predicting outcomes by application of principles
· Analysis Level – examination of component parts, identifying relationships between parts, comparing likes and differences of the parts
· Synthesis Level – reorganization or fusion of elements into new combinations
· Evaluation Level – formulating criteria and judging an idea/concept or object against that criteria


Review Presentations

-- 13-- Deductive Reasoning, Argument


-- 13--
TFY C12 Deductive Reasoning, 


CRCB 12 Argument

















TFY Chapter Twelve Deductive Reasoning
This chapter explains the fundamental standards that govern deductive reasoning.  It offers a basic vocabulary of logic and explains how deduction and induction interplay in our thinking.   Discussion with multiple exercises will show you the meaning and significance of such terms as syllogism, premises and conclusion, validity and soundness. A writing application asks you to write a deductive argument based on a wise saying.   Final reading selections by Thomas Jefferson and Martin Luther King demonstrate skilled deductive reasoning of enduring persuasiveness.

Links

Student Map





TFY - Chapter 12 Deductive Reasoning Student Summary

“TFY” Chapter 12 – Deductive Reasoning Summary


This chapter was all about deductive reasoning and the logic behind it. The chapter also compared deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning usually starts with a general principle and then applies it to a specific instance. While inductive reasoning usually starts with a more specific instance and then pulls it into a more general principle. 

The logic behind the deduction is a science of good reasoning, both inductive and deductive. I learned in this chapter there are some key terms I must understand in order to understand the basics of logic. The terms I need to understand are: argument, reasoning, syllogism, premise (major and minor), conclusion, validity, and soundness. 

From previous chapters, and this one, I learned that an argument can be both inductive and deductive and can be valid even if the premises are not true. I previously also learned that reasoning is drawn from facts, which will lead you to conclusions, judgments, or inferences about whatever topic you are discussing or reading about. 

Conclusion, validity and soundness are also some terms that I have already known the meaning behind. Your conclusion is a way to summarize your main point or what you are trying to get across or get action on. Validity and soundness both have to do with the truth behind your argument, reasoning, and premise. Premise was also a word that was previously discussed in another chapter, but in this chapter we learned that a major premise is more of a generalization, while a minor premise is more specific. The new key term to me in this chapter is syllogism. I have learned that this term clarifies the claims or premises, helps you to discover and expose hidden premises, and helps to find out if one thought follows another thought logically.


“TFY” Chapter 12 – Deductive Reasoning Exercise

Discovery Exercise – Page 348 – What is Deductive Reasoning?
Using at least two dictionaries, look up the terms deduction, deductive logic, and reasoning. Then write out in your own words a definition of deductive reasoning.

Deduction:
1. Noun – the act or process of deducting; subtraction (dictionary.com)
2. Noun – that which is deducted; that which is subtracted or removed (wiktionary.com)

Deductive logic:
1. Noun – a process of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessary from the premises presented, so that the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. (dictionary.com)
2. Noun – a process of reasoning that moves from the general to the specific, in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the premises presented, so that the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. (wiktionary.com)

Deductive reasoning:
1. Noun – reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect) (dictionary.com)
2. Noun – inference in which the conclusion is just as certain as the premises (wiktionary.com)

My definition of deductive reasoning: reasoning that goes from a more general topic into the details of that topic.



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CRCB - Chapter 12 - Identifying and Evaluating Arguments Exercise

“CRCB” Chapter 12 - Identifying and Evaluating Arguments Exercise


Exercise 12a - Engaging in Argument - Page 395-397:
Read the following version of the fairy tale Cinderella and decide whether the statements that follow it are true, false, or questionable. Provide a reason for each of your answers. For the purpose of this exercise, accept each sentence of the fairy tale as fact and forget about the common version of it. Think about what information each sentence conveys before making judgments about the statements that follow. Afterward you will share your responses with other members of your class. Some will agree with you and some will disagree, and you will see how a harmless fairy tale can turn into an argument.


Cinderella of the 21st Century
Cinderella’s stepmother and stepsisters disliked her. They bought themselves beautiful clothes and gifts and went to all of the important social events, but Cinderella wore rags and had to stay home. On the night of the Prince’s Ball, the stepmother and stepsisters wore beautiful gowns and jewels, and they left Cinderella at home to clean the fireplace. But Cinderella’s fairy godmother appeared and turned Cinderella’s rags into a beautiful gown. Then the fairy godmother, whose powers were granted to her for all eternity, found a pumpkin and turned it into a gold-plated automobile; she turned a mouse into a chauffer; and Cinderella rode to the Prince’s Ball in grand style. 





CRCB - Chapter 12 - Identifying and Evaluating Arguments Summary

“CRCB” Chapter 12 - Identifying and Evaluating Arguments Summary


In this chapter I learned that you need to analyze and evaluate an argument. You need to look at the argument in more detail. You need to pin point the reasons and the conclusion. I also learned there are two main types of arguments. There are deductive and inductive arguments. Deductive arguments begin with a general statement and then show the supporting details. An inductive argument begins with a series of observations and then concludes with a generalization that was logically pulled from the observations. Inductive arguments are mostly what type of arguments occur in our every day lives.
You need to determine dependability by asking questions like, who wrote what you are reading, is the source reliable, when was the article published, and what is the author’s credentials? You also need to distinguish fact from opinion and detect fallacies. I learned there are several types of fallacies to look out for. These types of fallacies are: either/ or thinking, hasty generalization or overgeneralization, red herring, false cause, slippery slope, ad hominem, and circular reasoning. All of these fallacies can lead to error in the reasoning of an argument. They can cause you to limit your answers to a problem, have too weak of supporting reason to too broad of a conclusion. They can cause or consist of author assumption, reader distraction or exclude the proper reasoning. Reading this chapter was interesting to me. I feel that I learned some helpful tips on how to evaluate arguments. Especially some ways that an author of an article would try to “trick” me into believing what they want without properly making up my own mind.